Half a century after women got the Pill, men may get one, too. Sexual intercourse, as Philip Larkin once observed in a poem, began in And the catalyst of s promiscuity, whether real or just in the imagination of those who thought they were living through it, was the contraceptive pill. This had its origins in a chemical synthesis first carried out 50 years ago on October 15th, in a laboratory in Mexico see article. The invention of the Pill marked a shift in the reproductive power-struggle between the sexes. Women could, for the first time, reliably prevent themselves from becoming pregnant.
But power goes hand in hand with responsibility, and in the eyes of many that power-loss diminished the responsibility of men not, perhaps, that high in the first place.
Hence the Health Education Council's campaign, six years after Larkin's supposed watershed. Power may, however, be about to shift again.
Pregnant Pause | Beavis and Butt-Head | FANDOM powered by Wikia
After years of research, chemical contraceptives for males are now undergoing clinical trials. If those trials work, a Pill for men should become available for those who want it. The trick required for a male Pill is to switch off sperm generation but at the same time maintain machismo. Biologists have been struggling with this balancing act for longer than the female Pill has existed, but a couple of research groups seem now to have cracked it.
Richard Anderson and his team at the Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, in Edinburgh, have been testing a male Pill—or, rather, a daily pill and an injection every three months—on 66 men in Edinburgh and Shanghai. The pill in question contains a gestogen. This is a synthetic hormone which, as in the female Pill, shuts off production in the brain of those molecules that stimulate the gonads to go about their reproductive business.
Baby on the Way. Now What?
To counteract an associated shutdown in male-hormone production, the volunteers receive a shot of a slow-release testosterone derivative. The results are encouraging. The subjects stopped producing sperm within four months of starting the trial. There were no pregnancies among their partners.
- Meet the Producer?
- Pregnant Pause with Zak and Shira | Listen via Stitcher for Podcasts!
- A Gentle Magic (Land of Enchantment Book 2).
- Mens Health Natural Bodybuilding Bible: The Complete Natural Guide to Sculpting Muscles That Show.
- Explore topics!
- Pregnant Pause.
- Pregnant Pause by Han Nolan?
Their sperm counts returned to normal within four months of discontinuing the treatment. And the short-term side-effects acne, mood swings and weight gain experienced by a few of them were irritating, but not life-threatening. Organon, part of Akzo Nobel, a Dutch firm, is taking the work forward with men, and hopes to have preliminary results next spring.
There is talk of the two companies co-operating. On the face of it, even such a souped-up male hormonal contraceptive might seem a hard sell. Women may worry about the nasty side-effects of oral contraceptives, but at least they can console themselves with the thought that the risk of death from an unwanted pregnancy or an abortion is much greater. Men have no such comforting rationale, so their tolerance of complications or side-effects is likely to be smaller. Dr Baird reckons that a male hormonal contraceptive might be on the market within a decade. In the meantime, a number of other laboratories are working on more sophisticated methods of suppressing male fertility than merely flooding the body with hormones.
One option is to interfere not with the production of sperm, but with their maturation. This is a long tube that leads out of the testis, in which newly formed sperm acquire some of their survival skills, such as their ability to swim. Dr Cooper has found that sperm produced by some genetically modified mice, which are missing part of the epididymis, get their tails into such a twist when they enter the female reproductive tract that they travel backwards and cannot hit their targets.
Genetic modification of men is not, of course, an option, but understanding what, exactly, the epididymis is doing might allow the development of a chemical to stop it.
David Clapham and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School have also stumbled upon flailing sperm. These cells, described in this week's Nature , were collected from mice that had been genetically engineered in a different way, and are missing a protein called CatSper from their tails. As a result, the mutant sperm move sluggishly and cannot pierce the zona pellucida the thick coating around an egg.
- Jump-Start Money Management.
- Bones and Cartilage: Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology.
- A Cottage Affair (Thrifty Means);
- A Time of Omens (Deverry);
- Information Links;
- Rapunzel and the Seven Dwarfs: A Maynard Moose Tale (LittleFolk).
Dr Clapham reckons that drugs to block CatSper might prove to be effective contraceptives with few side-effects, since the protein is found only in sperm. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Classical World.phon-er.com/js/best-budget/fifa-12-iphone-manager.php
The Johns Hopkins University Press. Rice University. Scarecrow Press. The Theater and Cinema of Buster Keaton. Princeton University Press. NWSA Journal.
Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 September American British French Italian. Category Portal. Categories : Comedy Humor research. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles that may contain original research from July All articles that may contain original research Articles with multiple maintenance issues.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.